What Is The Client Master Report Or CMR Copy?

client master report

Are you curious as to what a Client Master Report is or why it is necessary for you? By the conclusion of this post, you’ll understand why it’s one of the most critical papers a trader should possess.

What is a Client Master Report?

Client Master Report (CMR) is a document that includes all of the account holder’s information. It is the most preferred document for off-market transactions.

A Client Master Report provides critical information, such as the following:

– Personal information such as your name, address, as well as the date of birth 

– Demat account status and data 

– Linked bank account information 

– Nomination information

Importance of A Client Master Report 

After learning what CMR is, you might be wondering how it benefits you. We’ve listed some of the most important uses of a Client Master Report below: 

– Serves as a certificate for your Demat account 

– Allows you to connect your current Demat account to a new or additional trading account with some other broker 

– Consolidated information simplifies off-market transactions for you 

– Serves as legal evidence of the destination of your securities 

– Ascertains that no manual mistakes or misunderstandings occur

Essentially, unlisted brokers employ the Client Master Report or CMR Copy to validate two things.

  • To ascertain the source of money in a bank account.
  • To determine the Demat account to which the shares should be transferred

Key Information of Your CMR Copy

Every CMR copy has certain aspects and information. We’ve mentioned the most crucial data highlighted in a CMR below: 


Depository Participant ID (DP ID) is a one-of-a-kind number issued by National Securities Depository Limited (NSDL) or Central Depository Securities Limited (CDSL).

Client ID

Your broker will provide you with this unique identifying number.

Account Status

The status of your account reveals whether it is active or inactive.

Date of Account Opening

The date your Demat account was created.

Date of Account Closure

The day your account will be permanently deactivated. Only if your account is closed will this date be reported.

BO Status

BO Status informs us of the account holder’s current status. It informs us if you established an account as a corporation, trust, HUF, person, or other entity.

BO Sub Status

It indicates the account holder’s sub-status. If the account holder’s status is Individual, his sub-status might be Resident or NRI.

Type of Account

You may refer to the sort of account you have established here. Demat accounts are classified into three types:

  • Regular Demat Account:  It is utilised by Indian residents.
  • Repatriable Demat Account: This Demat account is utilised by NRIs and allows them to transfer cash overseas.
  • Non-Repatriable Demat Account: This NRI Demat account does not allow you to transfer funds outside of India.


This indicates if the Demat account belongs to a resident or an NRI. If you are a non-resident Indian (NRI), the broker must adhere to Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA) requirements.

Cycle of Statements

The Statement Cycle is the time span between which you get periodic statements of DP transactions. For example, if you set the frequency of reporting to monthly, you will get the DP transactions statement once a month.

Freeze Status

An account freeze is a regulatory or legal step that stops any transaction from taking place in the account.

Personal Information

It includes all of your personal information, such as:

  • Name of the first holder, their PAN card, and their date of birth 
  • Names of other holders, their PAN cards, and their dates of birth 
  • Occupation
  • Mailing address
  • Permanent address 
  • Phone number 
  • Email address


If your account is designated as a Basic Service Demat Account (BSDA), the BSDA Flag status will be ‘Yes,’ otherwise it will be ‘No,’ according to Central Depository Services Limited (CDSL).

Bank Information

All of the bank data associated with your Demat account may be found here. Namely,

  • Bank name 
  • Type of bank account
  • Account number of the bank 
  • MICR code 
  • IFSC code 
  • ECS flag

Nominee Specifics

A nominee is a person who is eligible to receive an inheritance in the event of an untimely death. If you’ve designated a nominee for your account, you’ll see information like the nominee’s name and address. If the candidate is a minor, the guardian’s information will be shown instead.

Particulars of a Power of Attorney

You may appoint someone to act on your behalf with this legal document. Brokers are permitted to operate on your behalf since you have authorised them to work on your behalf to smooth out share movements. The Master ID, name, reference, and holder status of your broker will be mentioned in this document.

The Broker’s Contact Information

Copy customers may view the location data and the broker’s contact information on the client master report, or CMR. This is useful in the event that the customer needs assistance from the broker in resolving a problem.

How To Get A Client Master Report

To get a PDF copy of the Customer Master Report or CMR Copy, the client just has to send an email to the broker with whom he/she has created a Demat account. Certain brokers allow you to download the Client Master Report or CMR Copy straight from the mobile application.

Steps To Find Your Demat Account Number

Your DP ID and Client ID combination is your Demat account number. Furthermore, if you are a CDSL customer, the first eight numbers will be your DP ID and the next eight digits will be your Client ID. On the other hand, if you are enrolled with NSDL, the first two characters are the initials ‘IN,’ followed by six numbers of the DP ID, and the last eight digits are the Client ID.


So, now you know all there is to know regarding your Client Master Report. There’s no denying that the CMR is extremely important and can help you with your transactions. For more information about trading in unlisted stocks, contact our experts at Unlisted Deal today!

10 mistakes people make while investing in mutual funds

investing in mutual fund

Mutual Fund investment is the talk of the town. These days, many people who earlier used to invest in the traditional saving schemes like PPF and FD are showing more interest in investing in Mutual Fund.

Ideally, if you don’t have a good knowledge of analyzing the security market, instead of directly investing in stocks, buying through Mutual Funds is a lot safer and more convenient. For the middle-class Indians, Mutual Fund investing is a wonderful way of fulfilling their desired goals. You can even start investing with as low as Rs 500 per month.

Irrespective of these advantages, there are many people- especially novice investors, who make a plethora of mistakes investing in Mutual Funds. In this post, we are going to discuss ten of the most common mistakes while investing in mutual funds.

1. Not defining any goal

You should clearly define your financial goals before you jump into Mutual Funds. One requires specifying his/her short and long term goals before deciding over the investment portfolio. If you are planning to go for a tour abroad after a year from now, investing in a Debt Fund seems more appropriate. On the other if you wish to retire after 30 years from today, you should set up your SIPs in an Equity Fund to have a large corpus in h and during your retirement.

2. Not researching the fund properly before investing

Investing in the financial market makes no sense if you haven’t done proper research. Before investing in a Mutual Fund scheme, you need to know its fund type, exit load, historical returns, asset size, expense ratio, etc. You need to have a clear idea about your own risk-return profile before you invest your savings in some scheme. This can provide you with the necessary guidance regarding making the selection of the right Mutual Fund.

3. Reacting to short term market fluctuations

There are many investors who get scared when the market witnesses a bearish trend. You need to understand and that Mutual Fund investing is basically meant for generating long term wealth. So, you should not react to any sharp correction in the market or short term volatility. Moreover, you should refrain from blindly following the stock market analysts and business channels on television. If you don’t keep yourself away from the noise, your chances of making larger returns from Mutual Funds will decrease.

4. Not having a long-term mindset

People generally invest in the Equity Funds to make huge money. Equity Funds can only generate long term wealth if you stay invested for a substantially long period of time. Many people sell their funds losing their enthusiasm and patience after suffering from short term losses. This doesn’t make any sense if you are aiming for quick money from an Equity Fund scheme.

Can A Private Company Issue Securities?

can a private company issue securities

A business means an affiliation of individuals formed to accomplish a common objective and must be integrated under the law. The Companies Act, 2013, which is an Act of parliament of India, regulates companies in India. Under the Companies Act, 2013, different types of companies with different levels of responsibility for shareholders and employees can be integrated.

In this article, we will discuss if private companies can issue securities. However, let’s first understand the types of companies. 

Types of Company

A business may be largely listed as follows:

  • Private Business Limited
  • Company of one person
  • Limited Company
  • Section 8 Company

How Does A Private Company Work?

A private corporation is a company whose shares are not listed on financial markets (e.g. BSE Limited, National Stock Exchange of India Limited, etc.) as opposed to public companies. Instead, the securities generated by private entities are issued, offered, held and exchanged privately by interested individuals.

A private limited corporation is established with a minimum of 2 members and may have a maximum of 200 members.

What Is The Securities under Companies Act, 2013?

Section 2(81) of the Business Act, 2013 describes securities as specified in Section 2 of the Securities Contracts Control Act, 1956. (h). According to the description, securities involve shares, notes, scripts, stocks, debits, etc. of incorporated companies/other corporate bodies, derivatives, units provided by the Pooled Investment Scheme, units/instruments issued to investors under any mutual funds, sovereign bonds, such other instruments/rights/interests therein that might have been declared by the Government to be granted by the Government.

In particular, exchangeable financial products or financial instruments that may be acquired and exchanged are generally referred to as shares. Securities might mean entitlements/rights or it may mean either a place of possession or a position of debt or both. The main feature of shares is that they must be transferable. For instance, fixed deposits with banks that are non-transferable instruments are not considered safe. Exceptionally fewer instruments, such as policies on mutual funds, which, while not transferable, are deemed to be shares, despite the fact that most of the policies on mutual funds are exchangeable on the open market.

Securities can be given in electronic or book-entry form either by means of a “certificate,” or in a “non-certified” form.

Can Private Company Issue Securities?

It is apparent from the above that private firms can offer securities and have representatives and shareholders, but they cannot sell their shares on stock markets. The public initial offer would not question private sector shares (IPO). Private corporations’ securities are typically less liquid even though it is traded by a few closely-connected owners and not authorised market participation. Furthermore, the market price of private sector stock cannot be readily measured.

Modes of Issue of Securities by Private Company

Private firms may issue securities under the Companies Act (‘Act’) in the following ways:

  • [Section 42 of the Act] on Private Placement
  • Via private placing, a corporation can make any bid or invitation to purchase securities to selective individuals (other than via a public offer) by offering a service agreement for private placement. For the issue of shares by Private Placement, the requirements stated in Section 42 of the Act must be fulfilled.

Such a bid or offer to purchase securities via a Private Placement offer may be made up to a total of 200 persons in total during the fiscal year (the total of 200 individuals excluded employees of the company who are offered securities under employees stock option scheme and qualified institutional buyers). The above ceiling of the total number of persons is determined separately for different forms of security, i.e. capital, preference share, debit. A minimum contribution of Rs. 20,000 of the marginal value of the securities should be made by each person.

The value of securities sold in the Private Placement mode shall be decided on the basis of the valuation report of the licenced valuer.

The letter of the private placement proposal must be preceded by an online application, which must be counted sequentially, explicitly addressed to the person to whom the proposal is made, and must be submitted either digitally or in writing throughout 30 days from the date of the registration of the name of that person as provided for in the Act.

Shareholders must seek prior permission, by means of a special resolution, for the planned sale of securities or for an invitation to subscribe to securities. However, direct consent of the Owners by means of a special resolution must be sought once a year on any new deals or invites to subscribe to non-convertible bonds within the year. New offer or invite to subscribe to private placement shares could be made only when the contract in respect of the earlier offer or invite has been terminated/offer or the invite has been revoked by the firm.

The individual to whom the bid is made should make the purchase of securities directly from their bank account by contributing to those securities, the full record of which must be maintained by the firm.

The shares shall be distributed within 60 days of receipt of the money from the application. If, owing to oversubscription of shares/inadequate subscription or any other cause, the company is not in a position to distribute the securities within the time limit of 60 days, the application cash must be refunded to the claimant within 15 days after the expiry of 60 days. In the case of a failure on the part of the business to repay the money collected from the claimant within 15 days, the business is responsible for paying interest at the rate of 12 per cent on the sum of the application.

Issue of Sweat Equity Shares [Section 54 of the Act]

By means of a special resolution, a company shall issue sweat-equity shares to its executives or employees, comparable to the class of shares now also issued by the company. The special resolution adopted by the shareholders for the issuance and allocation of sweat-equity shares shall become effective for a total term of 12 months of the date of passing, only after expiry of which new approvals will have to be carried from the shareholders.

Sweat equity shares may be sold by the corporation only after the close of a term of at least one year from the date of beginning of the operation of the company. In under a year such sweat-equity stocks cannot be filed for an aggregate value of more than 15% of the current paid-up capital stock or for shares of the issue value of the five-crores ropes, whichever one is higher. However, at that point, the proportion of the sweat-equity stock in the paid-up capital of the corporation shall not go ahead of twenty-five per cent.

Sweat equity stocks are locked in/untransferable for a term of at least 3 years from the date of allocation. Shares should be priced at a price decided by the licenced valuer at the reasonable price.

Issuance of Bonus Shares [Section 63 of the Act]

Bonus shares can be distributed by the shareholders of the company to be entirely paid-up, in any way whatsoever, by the companies –

  • Free reserves (reserves generated by revaluing properties not to be considered);
  • Premium securities account; or
  • The reserve capital redemption account.

If the opinion of the Board of Directors approving Compensation Issue is made public, the judgment cannot be later revoked by the Board of Directors. “Regulation 14 of the Rules of the Companies (Share Capital and Duties) 2014”

Advantages of Issuing Shares

In addition to the primary goal of raising money, the company has many other advantages, such as recruiting new customers, buying/purchasing other companies, growing company sales, increasing employee interest, lower leverage & debt reduction, increasing liquidity, credit scores, etc.


In the end, a private corporation is a privately held company. Private firms will issue securities and have representatives and shareholders, however their shareholders may not be allowed to exchange their shares on a free market.

Private corporations act in the same manner as public entities, but private firms are limited to very few directly connected owners and do not have to adhere with the strict regulatory standards applied to public companies.

The increased costs of conducting an IPO, the rigid legal criteria, the intention to keep private equity, etc. are among the reasons that many smaller businesses remain private. If a limited private company needs to raise additional capital to expand, the next stage of funding mostly comes from venture capitalists who specialise and concentrate on making capital investment for high-risk, high-reward chances.

In addition, several major institutional investors do provide private businesses with funding alternatives through private placement in general. When a private corporation is able to expand rapidly, it may eventually choose to “go public,” which ensures that it releases shares with an IPO that are then publicly traded on stock exchanges.

To learn more about securities and unlisted shares, contact our experts at the Unlisted Deal.

Advantages of Investing in Unlisted Stocks

advantages of investing in unlisted stocks

There is a lot of money to be made in pre-IPO investment, which was previously exclusively open to high-net-worth people since the typical investor could only participate in public limited firms that were listed on the stock market. However, times have changed, and the common investor may now buy shares in a growing company. Startups are risky, but they have the potential to deliver large gains not seen in the stock market. This is why investing in pre-IPO firms is a good idea. 

Investing in stocks on the grey market — the unlisted market for unlisted shares — has risks, but it may also be rewarding, according to market experts. 

Companies in the pre-IPO stage often have an established revenue model and are in the process of obtaining additional money from the market via a public listing. According to financial experts, investing in a firm that is ready to launch its IPO (initial public offering) may enable an investor participate in a company’s development, but such bets should only be done by aggressive traders since they include risk. 

Meanwhile, analysts claim that stock values on the grey market are frequently less volatile than those in the main market. Furthermore, purchasing stocks on the grey market is no longer a luxury reserved for large corporations/investors. Individual investors now have access to the grey market.

In this article, we’ll go over the advantages of investing in unlisted shares and best unlisted shares in India that you should consider investing in. However, before we delve into that, let’s first understand what unlisted shares are and how they work. 

What Are Unlisted Shares and How Does It Work?

A pre-IPO investment is one that is made in a private or public limited business before it becomes public via an Initial Public Offering (IPO). An initial public offering (IPO) is the first time a business trades on a public market. Pre-IPO shares are not available to everyone due to a lack of understanding or public awareness. 

Unlisted shares were formerly exclusively accessible to banks, private equity firms, hedge funds, and a few other privileged groups. But it is no longer an issue. Everyone may invest in the pre-IPO stage if they choose the proper firm. There are currently procedures in place that enable a firm to dematerialize its shares, enabling anybody to buy them and simply transfer them from one Demat account to another.

Should You Invest In Pre-IPO Companies?

The potential profit is the most compelling argument to invest in a pre-IPO. It has the potential to provide the best possible return on investment. Most technology stocks have a lot of upward potential in the stock market. Despite the fact that it is obvious that early investors profit the most before the firm goes public. You may now join in on the fun as well. 

Another benefit is the lack of stock market volatility. Depending on the industry, pre-IPO investment is less influenced by events such as the 2008 financial crisis or the 2020 pandemic. However, the accidents may have an impact on enterprises. This, in turn, will have an effect on your savings. 

Investing in pre-IPOs, like investing in the stock market, is not without risk. Startup enterprises aren’t always successful. As a consequence, when an investment fails, there are no rewards. There are only setbacks. Businesses, on the other hand, are aware of the danger. In order to compensate, companies sell shares at a lower price. This not only attracts investors but also protects the company. If it goes public but the IPO stocks do not perform well, the firm will still get funding from private investors.

Benefits of Buying Unlisted Shares

While there are several reasons why a person would invest in unlisted shares, the following are some of the more popular benefits of doing so: 

1. High-value investments: Because shares are not extremely liquid, they are often undervalued or overpriced for extended periods of time. As a result, if an investor can invest while the shares are inexpensive, he or she may profit handsomely. 

2. Risk diversification: Because unlisted equity shares are a separate asset class, they provide some risk diversification for investors who are heavily engaged in listed stock markets. 

3. High growth investments: Unlisted enterprises are often smaller in size and have yet to reach a stage where they may go public in order to get funding for their capital needs.  As a consequence of the small base effect, investing while the firm is tiny and investing through its growth when it lists on public markets generally generates large returns. 

4. Peace of mind: Unlike listed equity shares, the values of unlisted equity shares are typically constant, so the investor does not need to be concerned about price changes.

What Is a Good Way to Invest in Pre-IPO Stocks?

It’s tough to identify the proper company, and it’s much more difficult to find a means to invest in them. However, there are a variety of methods to invest in these thriving enterprises, including: 

  • Consult with a firm that specialises in capital raising and pre-IPO stock. They will advise and guide you on how to invest in a pre-IPO firm. 
  • Keep up with the latest news on which companies are doing well. 
  • For information on firms seeking capital, contact your local lenders. 
  • Expand your company network. 
  • Become an angel investor to establish yourself in the angel community.

Moreover, according to LiveMint, A person who has unlisted shares must report them on his or her income tax return. In this circumstance, ITR-1 and ITR-4 cannot be utilised; only ITR-2 and ITR-3 may be used.

Top Unlisted Shares In India To Invest

A)  HDB Financial Services

B)  Metropolitan Stock Exchanges of India (MSEI)

C)  Care (Religare) Health Insurance Limited 

D)  Reliance Retail

E)  One97 Communications (Paytm)

F)  Chennai Super Kings Cricket Limited 

Wrapping Up

Investing in initial public offerings (IPOs) is a common activity around the globe. There are individuals who are feasible and likely to succeed in the business sector firm shares. Many individuals rely on the purchase and sale of stocks to augment their income. However, an unpopular reality is that purchasing Pre-IPO shares from corporations might help you earn a lot of money. Investing in a company’s stock while it is still in its early phases of growth might result in a large profit. So, if you’re looking to invest in unlisted shares, contact us at Unlisted Deal today!

The Types of Unlisted Shares

types of unlisted shares

Unlisted share markets have grown in popularity in recent years. Investors with great knowledge, excellent financial health, and a long investing horizon purchase holdings in rising firms before their IPO and witness the true power of compounding. 

This has enticed many young investors to enter the pre-IPO market without sufficient understanding or supervision and to invest large sums in the unlisted. In this article, we will attempt to explain how an unlisted market operates and the various types of unlisted shares that you can avail of. Essentially, we will concentrate on the many elements of unlisted shares and their characteristics so that you can decide whether or not this market is for you. 

What Exactly Are Unlisted Shares? 

Unlisted firms are privately held companies that have not yet gone through the IPO process. Companies such as HDB Financial Services, Reliance Retail Unlimited, Paytm, Hero FinCorp, and others. Investing in unlisted companies allows you to have access to cutting-edge, creative enterprises. Moreover, as more renowned and popular companies like Ola and OYO are joining the unlisted shares market, investors are attracting more investors with their eye-popping prices, according to the Economic Times

Characteristics of Unlisted Shares

1. Untraded on Exchanges: Unlike their listed counterparts, shares of unlisted firms are not formally traded on any exchange. This category has its own market, where buyers and sellers transact via dealers.

2. Dematerialized: Unlisted equities, like listed stocks, are transferred to your Demat account. The status of unlisted shares purchased through a depository participant account, where they are available at face value, can be checked. 

3. Price Mechanism: Unlisted markets are a pure supply and demand game that puts an investor’s judgment to the test. As exchanges are not involved in this system, fair price discovery is constantly scrutinized. The price of a share is determined by a mutual agreement between the dealer and the customer. 

4. Growth factor: Unlisted markets allow investors to purchase interests in companies that are either technologically or operationally innovative. As a result, the cost is significantly lower than the listed space. 

5. Liquidity concerns: In unlisted marketplaces, liquidity concerns are common. Investors, on the other hand, seldom liquidate their stake in an unlisted market. 

Who Is Eligible To Invest In The Pre-IPO Market? 

Previously, only a few individuals could purchase pre-IPO stock holdings, but the field is now open to everybody. However, nothing is that simple for smaller investors with low resources because an investment, even today, goes through numerous phases of fundraising, and retail players can only participate when a specific threshold is reached. 

So, when a firm seeks investment in its early stages, it goes through seed capital funds, where worldwide funds support the company while endorsing its business model. There are several sorts of seed investment, such as series A, B, C, D, and so on. Seed investment investors include Ant Financial, Softbank, and Alibaba. 

Following this, angel investors and venture capital firms acquire a stake in the company, which is only focused on profit. Then there’s a private equity, which allows individual investors to engage. When compared to early-stage investors in seed investment rounds, they purchase holdings at a higher valuation. 

As a result, just because you are purchasing shares in an unlisted market does not indicate that your purchase cost will be particularly low. Though it is quite likely that you will find companies at very low values, conservative pricing is not a certainty. Following private equity, corporations often opt for primary markets, where the share is available to everybody. 

Types of Unlisted Shares

Common Stock 

A corporation’s common stock, also known as capital stock, is its normal ownership portion. In other terms, it is a method of dividing up a company’s ownership; one share of common stock indicates a percentage ownership share of a firm. For example, if a corporation has 100 outstanding shares, one share equates to one percent ownership of the company. 

Penny Stocks

Penny stocks are those that trade at a very low price, has very little market capitalization, are mostly illiquid, and are often listed on a smaller exchange. The pricing of penny stocks in the Indian stock market is typically low. These companies are extremely speculative and regarded as dangerous due to the lack of liquidity, a smaller number of owners, significant bid-ask spreads, and restricted information availability. 

Corporate Bonds 

A corporate bond is a sort of financial securities that a company issues and sells to investors. The firm receives the cash it requires, and the investor receives a predetermined number of interest payments at either a fixed or variable interest rate. When the bond “reaches maturity,” or expires, the payments stop, and the initial investment is refunded. 

The bond is often backed by the company’s capacity to repay, which is determined by its future revenue and profitability projections. Physical assets of the corporation may be used as collateral in specific instances. 

Government Securities 

In the investing sector, the term “government security” refers to a variety of financial products issued by a government. The most popular forms of government securities for most readers are those issued by the treasury in the form of Treasury bonds, bills, and notes. Many governments, however, will issue these financial instruments to support vital continuing activities. 

Government securities provide the guarantee that the money invested will be fully repaid when the asset matures. Some government securities may also pay out coupons or interest on a regular basis. Because they are backed by the government that issued them, these securities are considered conservative investments with minimal risk. 

Products Derivatives 

Derivative Product is defined as an over-the-counter financial contract whose value is designed to track or is derived from currencies, interest rates, securities, bonds, money market instruments, metals and other commodities, financial instruments, reference indices, or any other benchmark, and includes, but is not limited to, warrants, options, equity-linked notes, or other convertible securities. 


Unlisted companies typically make headlines when the market is in a bull market. The shares of these unlisted firms are often purchased during a momentum by the majority of investors. 

However, if done correctly, the unlisted shares market can be extremely lucrative. It is usually preferable to make an educated selection with the assistance of investment consultants. So, if you’re looking for more information on how to buy unlisted shares in India effectively, read our guide today!